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Bali is a province in Indonesia. The provincial capital is Denpasar. Bali is also one of the islands in the Nusa Tenggara Islands. At the beginning of Indonesia’s independence, the island was included in the Lesser Sunda Province with thousands of cities in Singaraja, and is now divided into 3 provinces: Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara. [6] [7]

In addition to comprising the island of Bali, the province of Bali also consists of smaller islands around it, namely Nusa Penida Island, Nusa Lembongan Island, Nusa Ceningan Island, Serangan Island, and Menjangan Island.

Geographically, Bali is located between Java and Lombok Island. The majority of Balinese are Hindus. In the world, Bali is well-known as a tourism destination with the unique results of its arts, especially for Japanese and Australian tourists. Bali is also known as the Island of the Gods and the Island of Thousand Temples.

The island of Bali is part of the Lesser Sunda Islands along 153 km and is 112 km wide, about 3.2 km from Java Island. Geographically, Bali is located at 8 ° 25′23 Selatan South Latitude and 115 ° 14′55 ″ East Longitude which makes it tropical like other parts of Indonesia.

Mount Agung is the highest point in Bali as high as 3,148 m. This volcano last erupted in March 1963. Mount Batur is also one of the mountains in Bali. About 30,000 years ago, Mount Batur erupted and produced a terrible disaster on earth. In contrast to the north, the southern part of Bali is a lowland which is flowed by rivers.

Based on relief and topography, in the middle of the island of Bali lies a mountain range that extends from west to east and between the mountains there are volcanic clusters namely Mount Batur and Mount Agung and mountains that are not flaming, namely Mount Merbuk, Mount Patas and Mount Seraya. The existence of these mountains causes the Geographical Region of Bali to be divided into 2 (two) parts that are not the same, namely North Bali with a narrow lowland and less sloping and South Bali with a broad low and sloping land. The slope of the island of Bali consists of flat land (0-2%) covering an area of ​​122,652 ha, undulating land (2-15%) covering an area of ​​118,339 ha, steep land (15-40%) covering an area of ​​190,486 ha and very steep land (> 40%) covering an area of ​​132,189 ha. Bali Province has 4 (four) lakes located in mountainous areas, namely Lake Beratan or Bedugul, Buyan, Tamblingan, and Batur. Beautiful Balinese nature makes Bali island famous as a tourist area.

The capital city of Bali is Denpasar. Other important places are Ubud as an art and resting center, located in Gianyar Regency. Nusa Lembongan is one of the diving sites, located in Klungkung Regency. Whereas Kuta, Seminyak, Jimbaran and Nusa Dua are some of the main destinations for tourism, both beach and resort, spa, etc., located in Badung Regency.

The total area of ​​Bali Province is 5,636.66 km2 or 0.29% of the territory of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. Administratively, the Province of Bali is divided into 8 districts, 1 municipality, 55 sub-districts, and 701 villages / kelurahan.

Balinese people fight against invaders to defend Bali

Japan occupied Bali during World War II and at that time a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai formed a Balinese army ‘freedom fighter’. Following the surrender of Japan in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch immediately returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish their colonial rule like before the war. This was opposed by the Balinese resistance forces which at that time used Japanese weapons.

On November 20, 1945, the battle of Puputan Margarana broke out in the village of Marga, Tabanan Regency, central Bali. 29-year-old Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai led his army from the eastern region of Bali to carry out attacks to the death of heavily armed Dutch troops. All members of the Bali battalion were killed and made it the last Balinese military resistance.

In 1946 the Dutch made Bali as one of 13 regions part of the State of East Indonesia which had just been proclaimed, namely as one of the rival countries of the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was later included in the Republic of Indonesia United when the Dutch recognized Indonesia’s independence on December 29, 1949. In 1950, Bali officially left its union with the Netherlands and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.

The eruption of Mount Agung that occurred in 1963, had shaken the people’s economy and caused many Balinese to migrate to various other regions in Indonesia.

In 1965, along with the failure of the G30S coup against the national government in Jakarta, in Bali and many other regions there was a crackdown on members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party. In Bali, it is estimated that more than 100,000 people were killed or missing. Nonetheless, the events of the early days of the New Order up to now have not been successfully revealed legally. [8]

A terrorist attack took place on October 12, 2002, in the form of a 2002 Bali Bomb attack on the Kuta Beach tourism area, leaving 202 people dead and 209 others injured. The 2005 Bali Bomb attack also occurred three years later in Kuta and Jimbaran beach. These events received wide international coverage because most of the victims were foreign tourists and caused the Bali tourism industry to face severe challenges in recent years.



Demography of Bali Island

The population of Bali is approximately 4 million more people, with a majority of 83.5% adhering to Hinduism. Other religions are Buddhism (0.54%), Islam (13.37%), Protestant Christianity (1.66%), Catholicism (0.88%), Confucianism (0.01%), and Flow of Trust (0.01%). Islam is the largest minority religion in Bali with followers now reaching 13.37% based on the latest census in January 2014.

Aside from the tourism sector, the Balinese also live from agriculture and fisheries, the best known of the world from agriculture in Bali is the Subak system. Some also choose to be an artist. The language used in Bali is Indonesian, Bali and English especially for those who work in the tourism sector.

Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages ​​in Bali and as with other Indonesians, most Balinese people are bilingual or even trilingual. Although there are several dialects in the Balinese language, generally Balinese people use a form of Balinese socialization as an option in communication. Traditionally, the use of various Balinese dialects is determined based on the color chess system in Hindu Dharma and clan membership (Balinese term: soroh, gotra); although the implementation of the tradition tends to decrease. In several places in Bali, a number of Javanese language users were found.

English is the third language (and the main foreign language) for many Balinese people who are influenced by the large needs of the tourism industry. Employees who work at tourist information centers in Bali often understand some foreign languages ​​with sufficient competence. Japanese is also an educational priority in Bali.



Three decades ago, the economy of Bali largely relied on and was based on agriculture both in terms of output and employment opportunities. Now, the tourism industry is the biggest income object for Bali. As a result, Bali is one of the richest regions in Indonesia. In 2003, around 80% of Bali’s economy depended on the tourism industry. At the end of June 2011, non-performing loans from all banks in Bali were 2.23%, lower than the average non-performing loan of the Indonesian banking industry (around 5%). The economy, however, suffered significantly as a result of the 2002 Bali Bombings and the 2005 Bali Bombing. The tourism industry itself has recovered from the consequences of this event.



Bali is the belle of Indonesian tourism which is already well known throughout the world. Besides being famous for its natural beauty, especially its beaches, Bali is also famous for its unique and interesting arts and culture. The tourism industry is centered in South Bali and in several other regions. The main tourist locations are Kuta and its surroundings such as Legian and Seminyak, eastern cities such as Sanur, city centers such as Ubud, and in the southern regions such as Jimbaran, Nusa Dua and Pecatu. Bali as a complete and integrated tourist destination has many interesting tourist attractions, including: Kuta Beach, Tanah Lot Temple, Padang – Padang Beach, Beratan Bedugul Lake, Garuda Wisnu Kencana (GWK), Lovina Beach with Lumba Lumbanya, Besakih Temple , Uluwatu, Ubud, Munduk, Kintamani, Amed, Tulamben, Menjangan Island and many others. Now, Bali also has several tourist centers full of education for children such as zoos, three-dimensional museums, water playgrounds, and turtle breeding grounds.


Bali does not have a railroad network but the road network on this island is classified as very good compared to other regions in Indonesia, the road network is well available, especially to tourist destinations, namely Legian, Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua, Ubud, etc. Most residents have private vehicles and choose to use them because public transportation modes are not available well, except taxis and tourism transportation. Mass transportation mode is currently being prepared so that Bali is able to provide more comfort to tourists. Recently, to serve the needs of viable mass transportation on the island of Bali, Trans Sarbagita was launched (Trans Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, Tabanan) Using a large Bus with AC facilities and a tariff of Rp. 3,500.

Until now, transportation in Bali was generally built in southern Bali around Denpasar, Kuta, Nusa Dua, and Sanur while the northern region lacked good accommodation.

– Documents, vehicles using horses as towers are known as delman in other places Ojek, motorcycle taxi

– Bemo / angkot, serving inside and between cities

– Trans Sarbagita Bus (Corridor 1 <City

– Garuda Wisnu Kencana (GWK)>) And (Corridor 2 <Nusa Dua – Batubulan>)

– Taxis 

– Komotra, a bus that serves trips to the Kuta beach area and its surroundings

– Buses, serving inter-city, rural and inter-provincial relations.

Bali is connected to the island of Java with a ferry service that connects Gilimanuk Port in Jembrana district with Ketapang Port in Banyuwangi Regency which takes about 30 to 45 minutes. Crossing to the island of Lombok through the Padangbai Port to Pelabuhan Lembar which takes around four to five hours depending on the weather.

Air transportation is served by Ngurah Rai International Airport with destinations to major cities in Indonesia, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Timor Leste, China and Japan. Runways and airplanes that come and go can be clearly seen from the beach and become a kind of additional entertainment for tourists who enjoy the beach of Bali.

For inter-island land transportation in Bali there are Ubung-Denpasar terminals and Mengwi terminals that connect the island of Bali with Java and Lombok Island. Ubung Terminal on Bali Island serves various inter-island routes to Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Malang, Madura, Jember, etc. Inter-island transportation is served by a large bus fleet with economic, business and executive classes. Ubung Terminal is relatively crowded starting at 3:00 p.m.-18:00 a.m. because at this time many buses start to go to their respective destination cities. For those of you who come to the terminal, please be aware because there are a lot of brokers who are rather forcing passengers.



Traditional Balinese music has similarities with traditional music in many other regions of Indonesia, for example in the use of gamelan and various other percussion instruments. Even so, there are peculiarities in the technique of playing and composition, for example in the form of kecak, which is a form of song which is said to mimic the sound of an ape. Likewise the variety of gamelan played is unique, for example jegog gamelan, gamelan gong gede, gambang gamelan, selunding gamelan and Semar Pegulingan gamelan. There is also Angklung music played for kebaben ceremonies and Bebonangan music played in various other ceremonies.

There is a modern form of traditional Balinese music, for example Gamelan Gong Kebyar which is a dance music that was developed during the Dutch colonial era and Joged Bumbung which began to be popular in Bali since the 1950s. Generally, Balinese music is a combination of various metal percussion instruments (metallophones), gongs and wooden percussion (xylophones). Because social, political and cultural relations, traditional Balinese music or Balinese style gamelan games influence or influence each other’s surrounding cultural areas, for example in the traditional music of the Banyuwangi community and traditional music of the people of Lombok.

  • Gamelan
  • Jegog
  • Genggong
  • Silat Bali


Balinese dance arts in general can be categorized into three groups, namely guardian or dance, sacred performances, bebali or dance performances for ceremonies and also for visitors and balih-balihan or dance arts for the entertainment of visitors. [15]

The Balinese dance expert I Made Bandem [16] in the early 1980s once classified these Balinese dances; among others, which belong to the guardian for example Berutuk, Sang Hyang Dedari, Rejang and Baris Gede, bebali include Gambuh, Pajegan Mask and Wayang Wong, while balih-balihan include Legong, Parwa, Arja, Prembon and Joged as well as various choreographies other modern dance.

One of the most popular dances for tourists is the Kecak Dance and Pendet Dance. Around the 1930s, Wayan Limbak worked with German painter Walter Spies to create a Kecak dance based on the Sang Hyang tradition and parts of the Ramayana story. Wayan Limbak popularized this dance while traveling the world with his Balinese dancers.

Young dancers are dancing Belibis Dance, contemporary choreography by Ni Luh Suasthi Bandem.

Kecak Dance Show.
Guardian dance

Tarian Wali / Wali Dance

  • Sang Hyang Dedari
  • Sang Hyang Jaran
  • Rejang Dance
  • Baris Dance
  • Belibis Dance




Tarian Bebali / Bebali Dance

  • Topeng Dance
  • Gambuh

Tarian Balih-Balihan / Balih-Balihan Dance

  • Legong Dance
  • Arja
  • Joged Bumbung
  • Drama Gong
  • Barong Dance
  • Pendet Dance
  • Kecak Dance
  • Calon Arang
  • Janger Dance
  • Kecak Dance